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The dead more particularly needed to be well fortified with magic in order to be able to accomplish in safely their perilous journey to the underworld ( see Budge, Egyptian Magic, London, 1899). The only early Western witness which treats unction as part of the baptismal exorcism is that of the Arabic Canons of Hippolytus (n. The Exsufflatio , or out-breathing of the demon by the candidate, which was sometimes part of the ceremony, symbolized the renunciation of his works and pomps, while the Insufflatio , or in-breathing of the Holy Ghost, by ministers and assistants, symbolised the infusion of sanctifying grace by the sacrament.But of exorcism, in the strict sense, there is hardly any trace in the Egyptian records. Babylonian magic was largely bound up with medicine, certain diseases being attributed to some kind of demoniacal possession, and exorcism being considered easiest, if not the only, way of curing them (Sayce, Hibbert Lect. For this purpose certain formulæ of adjuration were employed, in which some god or goddess, or some group of deities, was invoked to conjure away the evil one and repair the mischief he had caused. cit., 441 seq.) may be quoted: "The (possessing) demon which seizes a man, the demon (ekimmu) which seizes a man; The (seizing) demon which works mischief, the evil demon, Conjure, O spirit of heaven ; conjure, O spirit of earth." For further examples see King, Babylonian Magic and Sorcery (London, 1896). Most of these ancient ceremonies have been retained by the Church to this day in her rite for solemn baptism.But sometimes in addition to words some symbolic action was employed, such as breathing ( insufflatio ), or laying of hands on the subject, or making the sign of cross. Justin speaks of demons flying from "the touch and breathing of Christians " (II Apol., 6) as from a flame that burns them, adds St. is a multiplayer real-time virtual world, usually text-based.In this connection only two of the religions of antiquity, the Egyptian and Babylonian, call for notice; but it is no easy task, even in the case of these two, to isolate what bears strictly on our subject, from the mass of mere magic in which it is embedded.The Egyptians ascribed certain diseases and various other evils to demons, and believed in the efficacy of magical charms and incantations for banishing or dispelling them. 355) gives a detailed description of baptismal exorcism, from which it appears that anointing with exorcised oil formed a part of this exorcism in the East.In the famous case where a demon was expelled from the daughter of the Prince of Bekhten, human ministry was unavailing, and the god Khonsu himself had to be sent the whole way from Thebes for the purpose. There is no instance in the Old Testament of demons being expelled by men. (3) Other Exorcisms According to Catholic belief demons or fallen angels retain their natural power, as intelligent beings, of acting on the material universe, and using material objects and directing material forces for their own wicked ends; and this power, which is in itself limited, and is subject, of course, to the control of Divine providence , is believed to have been allowed a wider scope for its activity in the consequence of the sin of mankind.

G., VI, 453; Dial., 30, 85; ibid., 537, 676 sq; Minutius Felix, Octav., 27, P.

L., III; Origen, Contra Celsum., I, 25; VII, 4, 67; P.

G., XI, 705, 1425, 1516; Tertullian, Apol., 22, 23; P. As is clear from testimonies referred to, no magical or superstitious means were employed, but in those early centuries, as in later times, a simple and authoritative adjuration addressed to the demon in the name of God, and more especially in the name of Christ crucified, was the usual form of exorcism.

Christ also empowered the Apostles and Disciples to cast out demons in His name while He Himself was still on earth ( Matthew 10:1 and 8 ; Mark 6:7 ; Luke 9:1 ; ), and to believers generally He promised the same power ( Mark ).

But the efficacy of this delegated power was conditional, as we see from the fact that the Apostles themselves were not always successful in their exorcisms: certain kinds of spirits, as Christ explained, could only be cast out by prayer and fasting ( Matthew , 20 ; Mark -28 ; Luke ). Paul ( Acts ; ), and, no doubt, the other Apostles and Disciples, made use of regularly, as occasion arose, of their exorcising power, and the Church has continued to do so uninterruptedly to the present day. for driving out demons from the possessed -- Catholic ritual, following early traditions, has retained various other exorcisms, and these also call for notice here.

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